APPEAL from the Circuit Court of the United States for the District of Kansas. This is a bill, filed by the United States against the Leavenworth, Lawrence, and Galveston Railroad Company, to establish its title to certain tracts of land lying within the Osage country in Kansas, which were certified to the Governor of Kansas as forming part of the grant made by Congress to that State, to aid in the construction of certain railroads. The court granted the prayer of the bill, and the company appealed. The treaty with the Great and Little Osage tribes of Indians of June 2, 1825 (7 Stat. 240), contains the following provision:–– ARTICLE II. 'Within the limits of the country above ceded and relinquished, there shall be reserved to and for the Great and Little Osage tribe or nation aforesaid, so long as they may choose to occupy the same, the following described tract of land.' The land embraces, with other tracts, that mentioned in the first article of a treaty with those Indians, which was concluded Sept. 29, 1865 (14 Stat. 687). That article is as follows:–– 'The tribe of the Great and Little Osage Indians, having now more lands than are necessary for their occupation, and all payments from the government to them under former treaties having ceased, leaving them greatly impoverished, and being desirous of improving their condition by disposing of their surplus lands, do hereby grant and sell to the United States the lands contained within the following boundaries. . . . And, in consideration of the grant and sale to them of the above-described lands, the United States agree to pay the sum of three hundred thousand dollars, which sum shall be placed to the credit of said tribe of Indians in the treasury of the United States; and interest thereon at the rate of five per centum per annum shall be paid to said tribe semi annually, in money, clothing, provisions, or such articles of utility as the Secretary of the Interior may from time to time direct. Said lands shall be surveyed and sold under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior, on the most advantageous terms, for cash, as public lands are surveyed and sold under existing laws [including any act granting lands to the State of Kansas, in aid of the construction of a railroad through said lands] but no pre-emption claim or homestead settlement shall be recognized; and, after reimbursing the United States the cost of said survey and sale, and the said sum of three hundred thousand dollars placed to the credit of said Indians, the remaining proceeds of sales shall be placed in the treasury of the United States, to the credit of the 'civilization fund,' to be used, under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior, for the education and civilization of Indian tribes residing within the limits of the United States.' The words in brackets are an amendment adopted by the senate, 26th June, 1866, which the Indians accepted Sept. 21 of that year. The treaty was proclaimed Jan. 21, 1867. On the 3d of March, 1863, Congress passed 'An Act for a grant of lands to the State of Kansas, in alternate sections, to aid in the construction of certain railroads and telegraphs in said State' (12 Stat. 772); the first section of which is as follows:–– 'That there be, and is hereby, granted to the State of Kansas, for the purpose of aiding in the construction: First, of a railroad and telegraph from the city of Leavenworth, by way of the town of Lawrence, and via the Ohio City crossing of the Osage River, to the southern line of the State in the direction of Galveston Bay, in Texas; with a branch from Lawrence by the valley of the Wakarusa River, to the point on the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad where said road intersects the Neosho River. Second, of a railroad from the city of Atchison, via Topeka, the capital of said State, to the western line of the State, in the direction of Fort Union and Santa Fe, New Mexico; with a branch from where this last-named road crosses the Neosho, down said Neosho Valley to the point where the said first-named road enters the said Neosho Valley; every alternate section of land, designated by odd numbers, for ten sections in width on each side of said road and each of its branches. But in case it shall appear that the United States have, when the lines or routes of said road and branches are definitely fixed, sold any section, or any part thereof, granted as aforesaid, or that the right of pre-emption or homestead settlement has attached to the same, or that the same has been reserved by the United States for any purpose whatever, then it shall be the duty of the Secretary of the Interior to cause to be selected, for the purpose aforesaid, from the public lands of the United States nearest to tiers of sections above specified, so much land, in alternate sections or parts of sections, designated by odd numbers, as shall be equal to such lands as the United States have sold, reserved, or otherwise appropriated, or to which the right of pre-emption or homestead settlements have attached as aforesaid; which lands, thus indicated by odd numbers and selected by the direction of the Secretary of the Interior as aforesaid, shall be held by the State of Kansas for the use and purpose aforesaid: Provided, that the land to be so selected shall in no case be located further than twenty miles from the lines of said road and branches: Provided further, that the lands hereby granted for and on account of said road and branches, severally, shall be exclusively applied in the construction of the same, and for no other purpose whatever; and shall be disposed of only as the work progresses through the same, as in this act hereinafter provided: Provided, also, that no part of the land granted by this act shall be applied to aid in the construction of any railroad or part thereof, for the construction of which any previous grant of land or bonds may have been made by Congress: And provided further, that any and all lands heretofore reserved to the United States, by any act of Congress, or in any other manner by competent authority, for the purpose of aiding in any object of internal improvement, or for any other purpose whatsoever, be, and the same are hereby, reserved to the United States from the operation of this act, except so far as it mayb e found necessary to locate the routes of said road and branches through such reserved lands; in which case the right of way only shall be granted, subject to the approval of the President of the United States.'The legislature of Kansas, on the 9th of February, 1864, passed an act accepting the grant; and designated the appellant to build the road from Leavenworth to the southern line of the State, and to receive the grant of land upon the prescribed terms and conditions. Its authorized route passed through the Osage lands whereof mention is made in the first article of the treaty of 1865, and a map of the definite location of the road was filed in the General Land-Office, Jan. 2, 1868. The Commissioner of the General Land-Office, by letter bearing date Jan. 21, 1868, directed the register and receiver of the proper office to withdraw from sale the odd-numbered sections within ten miles of the line of the road. The fourth section of the law making appropriations for the Indian Department, approved March 3, 1863 (12 Stat. 793), is as follows:–– 'That the President of the United States be, and is hereby, authorized to enter into treaties with the several tribes of Indians, respectively, now residing in the State of Kansas, for the extinction of their titles to lands held in common within said State, and for the removal of such Indians of said tribes as hold their lands in common to suitable localities elsewhere within the territorial limits of the United States, and outside the limits of any State.' On the 10th of April, 1869, Congress passed the following joint resolution (16 Stat. 55):–– 'Resolved, by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That any bona fide settler residing upon any portion of the lands sold to the United States by virtue of the first and second articles of the treaty concluded between the United States and the Great and Little Osage tribe of Indians, September twenty-ninth, eighteen hundred and sixty-five, and proclaimed January twenty-first, eighteen hundred and sixty-seven, who is a citizen of the United States, or shall have declared his intention to become a citizen of the United States, shall be, and hereby is, entitled to purchase the same, in quantity not exceeding one hundred and sixty acres, at the price of one dollar and twenty-five cents per acres, within two years from the passage of this act, under such rules and regulations as may be prescribed by the Secretary of the Interior: Provided, however, that both the odd and even numbered sections of said lands shall be subject to settlement and sale as above provided: And provided further, that the sixteenth and thirty-sixth sections in each township of said lands shall be reserved for State school purposes, in accordance with the provisions of the act of admission of the State of Kansas: Provided, however, that nothing in this act shall be construed in any manner affecting any legal rights heretofore vested in any other party or parties.' Settlers made entries lying within the odd-numbered sections, which were set aside and vacated, Jan. 16, 1872, by the Secretary of the Interior, who decided that the appellant had a grant within those lands. The appellant having constructed its road from its initial point to Thayer, within the ceded territory, and about twenty miles south of its northern boundary; and, desiring to charge its previously located route south of that town, the legislature of Kansas, in January, 1871, asked Congress to allow a relocation of the road. Congress passed an act, approved April 19, 1871, as follows (17 Stat. 5):–– 'An Act to enable the Leavenworth, Lawrence, and Galveston Railroad Company to relocate a portion of its road. 'Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America, in Congress assembled, That the Leavenworth, Lawrence, and Galveston Railroad Company, for the purpose of improving its route and accommodating the country, may relocate ay portion of its road south of the town of Thayer, within the limits of its grant, as prescribed by the act of Congress entitled 'An Act for a grant of lands to the State of Kansas, in alternate sections, to aid in the construction of certain railroads and telegraphs in said State,' approved March third, eighteen hundred and sixty-three; but not thereby to charge, enlarge, or diminish said land grant.' Sept. 21, 1871, the Governor of Kansas certified to the Secretary of the Interior that the road of the appellant had been constructed and equipped as required by the act of Congress of March 3, 1863, and that a map of the road had been duly filed, whereupon certified lists of the odd-numbered sections of lands within the railroad limits were made by the proper authority at Washington, and the governor, April 8, 1872, and March 21, 1873, issued to the appellant patents for the lands mentioned in the bill of complaint. The case was argued by Mr. George F. Edmunds and Mr. P. Phillips for the appellant, and by Mr. Solicitor-General Phillips, Mr. Jeremiah S. Black, and Mr. William Lawrence, for the appellee.
The opinion of the court was delivered by: Mr. Justice Davis delivered the opinion of the court.
This bill was brought by the United States to confirm and establish its title to certain tracts of land, and to enjoin the appellant from setting up any right or claim thereto. These tracts, situate within the Osage ceded lands in Kansas, and specifically described in 'certified lists' furnished by the Commissioner of the General Land-Office, with the approval of the Secretary of the Interior, to the governor of the State, were subsequently conveyed by the latter to the appellant. Having the force and effect of a patent (10 Stat. 346), the lists passed the title of the United States to the tracts in question, if they were embraced by the grant in aid of the construction of the appellant's road. But the appellee contends that they were not so embraced. If such be the fact, inasmuch as public officers cannot bind the government beyond the scope of their lawful authority, the decree of the Circuit Court granting the prayer of the bill must be affirmed.
The act of Congress of March 3, 1863 (12 Stat. 772), is the starting-point in this controversy. Upon it and the treaty with the Great and Little Osage Indians, proclaimed Jan. 21, 1867 (14 id. 687), the appellant rests its claim of title to the lands covered by the patents. It is, therefore, of primary importance to ascertain the scope and meaning of that act. The parties differ radically in their interpretation of it. The United States maintains that it did not dispose of the Osage lands, and that it was not intended to do so. On the contrary, the appellant insists that, although not operating upon any specific tracts until the road was located, it then took effect upon those in controversy, as they, by reason of the extinction of the Osage title in the mean while, had become, in the proper sense of the term, public lands. This difference would seem to imply obscurity in the act; but, be this as it may, the rules which govern in the interpretation of legislative grants are so well settled by this court that they hardly need be reasserted. They apply as well to grants of lands to States, to aid in building railroads, as to grants of special privileges to private corporations. In both cases the legislature, prompted by the supposed wants of the public, confers on others the means of securing an object the accomplishment of which it desires to promote, but declines directly to undertake.
The main question in The Dubuque and Pacific Railroad Company v. Litchfield, 23 How. 66, was, whether a grant to the Territory of Iowa, to aid in the improvement of the navigation of the Des Moines River, extended to lands above the Raccoon Fork, or was confined to those below it. The court, in deciding it, say,––
'All grants of this description are strictly construed against the grantee; nothing passes but what is conveyed in clear and explicit language; and, ast he rights here claimed are derived entirely from the act of Congress, the donation stands on the same footing of a grant by the public to a private company, the terms of which must be plainly expressed in the statute, and, if not thus expressed, they cannot be implied.'
This grant, like that to Iowa, was made for the purpose of aiding a work of internal improvement, and does not extend beyond the intent it expresses. It should be neither enlarged by ingenious reasoning, nor diminished by strained construction. The interpretation must be reasonable, and such as will give effect to the intention of Congress. This is to be ascertained from the terms employed, the situation of the parties, and the nature of the grant. If these terms are plain and unambiguous, there can be no difficulty in interpreting them; but, if they admit of different meanings,–one of extension, and the other of limitation, they must be accepted in a sense favorable to the grantor. And if rights claimed under the government be set up against it, they must be so clearly defined that there can be no question of the purpose of Congress to confer them. In other words, what is not given expressly, or by necessary implication, is withheld. Dubuque and Pacific Railroad Company v. Litchfield, supra; Rice v. Railroad Company, 1 Black, 380; Charles River Bridge v. Warren Bridge, 11 Pet. 120. Applying these rules to this controversy, there does not seem to be any difficulty in deciding it. Whatever is included in the exception is excluded from the grant; and it therefore often becomes important to ascertain what is excepted, in order to determine what is granted. But, if the exception and the proviso were omitted, the language used in the body of this act cannot be construed to include the Osage lands.
It creates an immediate interest, and does not indicate a purpose to give in future. 'There be and is hereby granted' are words of absolute donation, and import a grant in praesenti. This court has held that they can have no other meaning; and the land department, on this interpretation of them, has uniformly administered every previous similar grant. Railroad Company v. Smith, 9 Wall. 95; Schulenberg v. Harriman, 21 id. 60; 1 Lester, 513; 8 Opin. 257; 11 id. 47. They vest a present title in the State of Kansas, though a survey of the lands and a location of the road are necessary to give precision to it, and attach it to any particular tract. The grant then becomes certain, and by relation has the same effect upon the selected parcels as if it had specifically described them. In other words, the grant was a float until the line of the road should be definitely fixed. But did Congress intend that it should reach these lands? Its general terms neither include nor exclude them. Every alternate section designated by odd numbers, within certain defined limits, is granted; but only the public lands owned absolutely by the United States are subject to survey and division into sections, and to them alone this grant is applicable. It embraces such as could be sold and enjoyed, and not those which the Indians, pursuant to treaty stipulations, were left free to occupy. Rice v. Railroad Co., supra. Since the land system was inaugurated, it has been the settled policy of the government to sell the public lands at a small cost to individuals, and for the last twenty-five years to grant them to States in large tracts to aid in works of internal improvement. But these grants have always been recognized as attaching only to so much of the public domain as was subject to sale or other disposal, although the roads of many subsidized companies pass through Indian reservations.
Such grants could not be otherwise construed; for Congress cannot be supposed to have thereby intended to include land previously appropriated to another purpose, unless there be an express declaration to that effect. A special exception of it was not necessary; because the policy which dictated them confined them to land which Cog ress could rightfully bestow, without disturbing existing relations and producing vexatious conflicts. The legislation which reserved it for any purpose excluded it from disposal as the public lands are usually disposed of; and this act discloses no intention to change the long-continued practice with respect to tracts set apart for the use of the government or of the Indians. As the transfer of any part of an Indian reservation secured by treaty would also involve a gross breach of the public faith, the presumption is conclusive that Congress never meant to grant it.
'A thing which is within the letter of the statute is not within the statute, unless it be within the intention of the makers.' 1 Bac. Abr. 247. The treaty of June 2, 1825, secured to the Osages the possession and use of their lands 'so long as they may choose to occupy the same;' and this treaty was only the substitute for one of an earlier date with equal guaranties.
As long ago as The Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 5 Pet. 1, this court said that the Indians are acknowledged to have the unquestionable right to the lands they occupy, until it shall be extinguished by a voluntary cession to the government; and, recently, in United States v. Cook, 19 Wall. 591, that right was declared to be as sacred as the title of the United States to the fee. Unless the Indians were deprived of the power of alienation, it is easy to see that they could not peaceably enjoy their possessions with a dominant race constantly pressing on their frontier. With the ultimate fee vested in the United States, coupled with the exclusive privilege of buying that right, the Indians were safe against intrusion, if the government discharged its duty to them. This it has indicated a willingness to do; for in 1834 an act was passed (4 Stat. 729, sect. 11) prohibiting, under heavy penalties, a settlement on the lands of an Indian tribe, or even an attempt to survey them. This perpetual right of occupancy, with the correlative obligation of the government to enforce it, negatives the idea that Congress, even in the absence of any positive stipulation to protect the Osages, intended to grant their land to a railroad company, either absolutely or cum onere. For all practical purposes, they owned it; as the actual right of possession, the only thing they deemed of value, was secured to them by treaty, until they should elect to surrender it to the United States. In the free exercise of their choice, they might hold it for ever; and whatever changed this condition, or interfered with it, violated the guaranties under which they had lived. The United States has frequently bought the Indian title, to make room for civilized men,–the pioneers of the wilderness; but it has never engaged in advance to do so, nor was constraint, in theory at least, placed upon the Indians to bring about their acts of cession. This grant, however, if it took effect on these lands, carried with it the obligation to extinguish the Indian right. This will be conceded, if a complete title to them were granted; but it is equally true if only the fee subject to that right passed. It would be idle to grant what could be of no practical benefit unless something be done which the grantee is forbidden, but which the grantor has power, to do. And this applies with peculiar force to a grant like this, intended to be immediately available to the grantee. The lands were expected to be used in the construction of the road as it progressed; but they could neither be sold nor mortgaged so long as a valid adverse right of occupancy attached to them. The grantee was prohibited from negotiating with the Indians at all; but the United States might, by treaty, put an end to that right. As Congress cannot be supposed to do a vain thing, the present grant of the fee would be an assurance to the grantee that the full title should be eventually enjoyed. This would be in effect a transfer of the possessory right of the Indians before acquiring it,–a poor way of observing a treaty stipulation. How could they r eat on an equality with the United States under such circumstances? They would be constrained to sell, as the United States was obliged to buy. Although it might appear that the sale was voluntary, it would, in fact, be compulsory. Can the court, in the absence of words of unmistakable import, presume that an act so injurious to the Indians was intended? The grant is silent as to such a purpose; but if it was to take effect in the Osage country, on the surrender of the Indian title, it would have so declared. It is true the recognized route of the road passed through that country; but many other roads, aided by similar grants, ran through such reservations, and in no case before this has land included in them been considered as falling within any grant, whether the Indian right was extinguished before or after the definite location of the road. And if Congress really meant that this grant should include any part of the reservation of the Osages, it would at least have secured an adequate indemnity to them, and sanctioned a delay in locating the road until the surrender of their right should be made. Instead of this, the act contains no provision for them, and contemplates that the road shall be finished as soon as practicable. This is inconsistent with a purpose to grant their land; for they had not proposed to relinquish it, nor had the President encouraged them to do so. In the face of this, it is hard to believe that Congress meant to hold out inducements to the company to postpone fixing the route of their road until a contingency should happen which the act did not contemplate. Besides, Congress was bound by every consideration affecting the condition of the Indians to retain their lands within its own control. But it is said that the Indian appropriation bill became a law the same day as the act under consideration, and that it authorized the President to enter into negotiations with the several tribes of Indians residing in Kansas, for the extinction of their title and for their removal. This is true; but it does not prove any purpose inconsistent with the policy of the act of 1837 (5 Stat. 135), which contemplates the sale of all Indian lands ceded to the government. If Congress had intended to extinguish the Osage title, for the benefit of the appellant, it would have spoken directly, as it did in the Pacific Railroad act, and not in an indirect way near the end of one of the general appropriation bills. The Congress that made this grant made one, eight months before, to aid in the construction of a railroad from the Missouri River to the Pacific Ocean, and of other roads connecting therewith; in which it agreed to extinguish as rapidly as possible the Indian title, for the benefit of the companies. This was necessary, although their roads ran through territory occupied by wild tribes; but this passed through a reservation secured by treaty, and occupied by Indians at least partially civilized. A transfer of any part of it would be wrong; and, as the act does not mention it, there is no reason to suppose that Congress, in making the grant, contemplated the extinction of the Indian title at all. Besides, the avowed object of the provision in the appropriation act was to remove the Indians. If any ulterior hidden purpose was to be thereby subserved, Congress is not responsible for it, nor can it affect this case. The language used is to be taken as expressing the legislative intention, and the large inference attempted to be drawn from it is not authorized. It does not follow, because Congress sanctioned negotiations to effect the removal of the Indians from Kansas, as a disturbing element of her population, and to procure their land for settlement, that it also contemplated obtaining the title of any tribe in order to convey it by this grant. The policy of removal–a favorite one with the government, and always encouraged by it–looked to the extinguishment of the Indian title for the general good, and not for the special benefit of any particular interest. But the two acts have no necessr y connection with each other, because they happened to be aproved on the 3d of March. The laws signed by the President that day occupy one hundred pages of the twelfth volume of the statutes.
We are not without authority that the general words of this grant do not include an Indian reservation. In Wilcox v. Jackson, 13 Pet. 498, the President, by proclamation, had ordered the sale of certain lands, without excepting therefrom a military reservation included within their boundaries. The proclamation was based on an act of Congress supposed to authorize it; but this court held that the act did not apply, and then added, 'We go further, and say, that whenever a tract of land shall have been once legally appropriated to any purpose, from that moment the land thus appropriated becomes severed from the mass of public lands; and that no subsequent law, proclamation, or sale would be construed to embrace or operate upon it, although no reservation were made of it.' It may be urged that it was not necessary in deciding that case to pass upon the question; but, however this may be, the principle asserted is sound and reasonable, and we accept it as a rule of construction. The supreme courts of Wisconsin and Texas have adopted it in cases where the point was necessarily involved. State v. Delesdenier, 7 Tex. 76; Spaulding v. Martin, 11 Wis. 274. It applies with more force to Indian than to military reservations. The latter are the absolute property of the government; in the former, other rights are vested. Congress cannot be supposed to grant them by a subsequent law, general in its terms. Specific language, leaving no room for doubt as to the legislative will, is required for such a purpose.
But this case does not rest alone on the words of description in the grant; for the Osage lands are expressly excepted by force of the following proviso:––
'That any and all lands heretofore reserved to the United States, by any act of Congress, or in any other manner by competent authority, for the purpose of aiding in any object of internal improvement, or for any other purpose whatsoever, be, and the same are hereby, reserved to the United States from the operation of this act, except so far as it may be found necessary to locate the routes of said road and branches through such reserved lands; in which case, the right of way only shall be granted, subject to the approval of the President of the United States.'
In construing a public grant, as we have seen, the intention of the grantor, gathered from the whole and every part of it, must prevail. If, on examination, there are doubts about that intention or the extent of the grant, the government is to receive the benefit of them. This proviso has, in our opinion, no doubtful meaning. Attached in substantially the same form to all railroad land-grant acts passed since 1850, it was employed to make plainer the purpose of Congress to exclude from their operation lands which, by reason of prior appropriation, were not in a condition to be granted to a State to aid it in building railroads. It would be strange, indeed, if, by such an act, Congress meant to give away property which a just and wise policy had devoted to other purposes. That lands dedicated to the use of the Indians should, upon every principle of natural right, be carefully guarded by the government, and saved from a possible grant, is a proposition which will command universal assent. What ought to be done, has been done. The proviso was not necessary to do it; but it serves to fix more definitely what is granted by what is excepted. All lands 'heretofore reserved,' that is, reserved before the passage of the act, 'by competent authority, for any purpose whatsoever,' are excepted by the proviso. This language is broad and comprehensive. It unquestionably covers these lands. They had been reserved by treaty before the act of 1863 was passed. It is said, however, that having been reserved, not 'to the United States,' but to the Osages, they are, therefore, not withint he terms of the proviso. This position is untenable. It would leave the proviso without effect; because all the reservations through which this road was to pass were Indian. This fact was recognized, and the right of way granted through them, subject to the approval of the President. Through his negotiations with the Indians, he secured it in season for the operations of the company. Besides, there were no other lands over which he could exercise any authority to obtain that right. And why grant it by words vesting its immediate enjoyment, unless it was contemplated that the roads would be constructed during the existence of those reservations? But the verbal criticism, that these lands were not, within the meaning of this proviso, reserved 'to the United States,' is unsound. The treaty reserved them as much to one as to the other of the contracting parties. Both were interested therein, and had title thereto. In one sense, they were reserved to the Indians; but, in another and broader sense, to the United States, for the use of the Indians.
Every tract set apart for special uses is reserved to the government, to enable it to enforce them. There is no difference, in this respect, whether it be appropriated for Indian or for other purposes. There is an equal obligation resting on the government to require that neither class of reservations be diverted from the uses to which it was assigned. Out of a vast tract of land ceded by the Osages, a certain portion was retained for their exclusive enjoyment, as long as they chose to possess it. The government covenanted that they should not be disturbed, except with their voluntary consent first obtained; and a grant of their land would be such a manifest breach of this covenant, that Congress, in order to leave no possible room for doubt, specially excepted it by the proviso. A construction which would limit it to land set apart for military posts and the like, and deny its application to that appropriated for Indian occupation, is more subtle than sound. This proviso, or rather one couched in the same language, was the subject of consideration by this court, and received a liberal interpretation, instead of the technical and narrow one claimed for it by the appellant. Wolcott v. Des Moines Navigation Co., 5 Wall. 681, was a controversy concerning the title to certain lands, which, it was conceded, were covered by a grant, unless excluded by the proviso ...