The opinion of the court was delivered by: Alan C. Kay Sr. United States District Judge
ORDER DENYING DEFENDANTS' MOTION TO DISMISS COUNT V, GRANTING DEFENDANTS' REQUEST TO STAY PROCEEDINGS AS MODIFIED, AND ADMINISTRATIVELY CLOSING THIS CASE
Plaintiffs Nan Wadsworth, Elizabeth Valdez Kyne, Bert Villon, and Stephen West ("Plaintiffs"), brought suit on behalf of a similarly situated class against a number of different entities that have owned and operated the Grand Wailea Resort Hotel & Spa ("Grand Wailea Resort" or "Hotel") in Maui during the applicable statute of limitations period. Second Am. Compl. ¶¶ 4-6. Defendants include MSR Resort Lodging Tenant, LLC, KSL Grand Wailea Resort, Inc., Hilton Hotels Corp. ("Hilton"), Waldorf=Astoria Management LLC ("Waldorf=Astoria"), CNL Grand Wailea Resort, LP, and CNL Lodging Tenant Corp.*fn2 Id. ¶¶ 6--8. Plaintiffs have all worked as food and beverage servers for Defendants. Id. ¶ 3.
Plaintiffs' Second Amended Complaint alleges that the Grand Wailea Resort provides food and beverage services throughout the Hotel, including in its banquet department, its restaurants, and through room service. Id. ¶ 5. Plaintiffs allege that Defendants have added a preset service charge to customers' bills for food and beverage served at the Hotel, but that Defendants have not remitted the total proceeds of the service charge as tip income to the employees who serve the food and beverages. Id. ¶¶ 9--10. Instead, Plaintiffs allege that the Defendants have had a policy and practice of retaining for themselves a portion of these service charges (or using it to pay managers or other non-tipped employees who do not serve food and beverages), without disclosing to the Hotel's customers that the services charges are not remitted in full to the employees who serve the food and beverages.*fn3 Id. ¶¶ 11--12.
Plaintiffs' Second Amended Complaint asserts five counts. As a result of the Court's ruling on a previous motion to dismiss, the following counts remain: Count II, in which Plaintiffs allege that Defendants' conduct constitutes unlawful intentional interference with contractual and/or advantageous relations; Count III, in which Plaintiffs allege that Defendants' conduct constitutes a breach of an implied contract between Defendants and Defendants' customers, of which Plaintiffs are third party beneficiaries;*fn4 Count IV, in which Plaintiffs allege that Defendants have been unjustly enriched at Plaintiffs' expense under state common law; and Count V, in which Plaintiffs allege that as a result of Defendants' conduct, they have been deprived of income that constitutes wages, which is actionable under H.R.S. §§ 388--6, 388--10, and 388--11. Count V is at issue in the instant motion. Defendants move to dismiss Count V and Plaintiffs move for summary judgment on Count V as to Defendants' liability for unpaid wages, but not as to the amount of resulting damages.
On November 24, 2008, Plaintiffs filed a Class Action Complaint. Doc. No. 1. On January 29, 2009, Plaintiffs filed an Amended Class Action Complaint. Doc. No. 19. There were a number of similar cases filed in this Court, and on January 23, 2009, Plaintiffs moved to consolidate or alternatively for assignment of all the related cases to one judge pursuant to Local Rule 40.2.*fn5 Doc. No. 16. On April 8, 2009, this Court adopted the Magistrate Judge's Findings and Recommendation that the similar cases not be consolidated. 2009 WL 975769 (Doc. No. 56).*fn6
On July 9, 2009, the Court stayed this case in light of Judge Gillmor's certification to the Hawaii Supreme Court of a question of law that was also important to the instant case.*fn7
See Doc. No. 71. The Hawaii Supreme Court answered the certified question on March 29, 2010. See Davis v. Four Seasons Hotel Ltd., 228 P.3d 303 (Haw. 2010) (hereafter "Davis II"). Accordingly, on April 16, 2010, Plaintiffs filed a motion to lift the stay and a motion to file a second amended complaint. Doc. Nos. 73 & 74. The Magistrate Judge granted both motions on June 22, 2010. Doc. No. 89. Plaintiffs filed their Second Amended Complaint on June 28, 2010. Doc. No. 93.
On July 20, 2010, Defendants filed a Motion to Dismiss Second Amended Complaint. Doc. No. 95. On December 10, 2010, the Court granted the motion with respect to Count I, Plaintiffs' unfair methods of competition claim, without prejudice and Count III, in so far as it alleged a breach of an implied contract between Plaintiffs and Defendants. 2010 WL 5146521 (Doc. No. 118).
On March 25, 2011, Plaintiffs filed a Motion to Certify Class. Doc. No. 126. On April 1, 2011, Defendants filed a Suggestion of Bankruptcy for MSR Golf Course LLC, et al., which acted to stay proceedings against all Defendants except Hilton and Waldorf=Astoria.*fn8 Doc. No. 128. On July 18, 2011, the Court adopted the Magistrate Judge's Findings and Recommendation that the class be certified as "all non-managerial food and beverage employees who, from January 31, 2006 to the present, have worked at banquets, functions, other events, and small parties, where a service charge was imposed and where a part of that service charge was kept by the Defendants or management without adequate disclosure to customers" as to the non-debtor Defendants Hilton and Waldorf=Astoria (together "Defendants").*fn9
On June 1, 2011, Plaintiffs filed the instant Motion for Partial Summary Judgment ("Plaintiffs' Motion for Summary Judgment"). Doc. No. 143. The Motion was accompanied by a supporting memorandum ("Pls.' MSJ Mem.") and a concise statement of facts ("Pls.' CSF"). Doc. Nos. 144 & 145. On October 24, 2011, Defendants filed an opposition ("Defs.' Opp'n") and a response to Plaintiffs' CSF ("Defs.' Response to Pls.' CSF"). Doc. Nos. 155 & 156. Plaintiffs filed a reply on October 31, 2011 ("Pls.' Reply"). Doc. No. 157.
On June 1, 2011, Defendants filed a Motion to Dismiss Count V of the Second Amended Class Action Complaint or to Certify the Question to the Hawaii Supreme Court ("Defendants' Motion to Dismiss"). Doc. No. 146. The Motion was accompanied by a supporting memorandum ("Defs.' MTD Mem."). Doc. No. 146. Plaintiffs filed an opposition on October 24, 2011 ("Pls.' Opp'n"). Doc. No. 154. On October 31, 2011, Defendants filed a reply ("Defs.' Reply"). Doc. No. 158.
On November 14, 2011, the Court held a hearing on Defendants' request to stay proceedings, Plaintiffs' Motion for Partial Summary Judgment, and Defendants' Motion to Dismiss. The Court will address Plaintiffs' Motion in a separate order.
Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 12(b)(6) ("Rule 12(b)(6)") permits dismissal of a complaint that fails "to state a claim upon which relief can be granted." Under Rule 12(b)(6), review is generally limited to the contents of the complaint. Sprewell v. Golden State Warriors, 266 F.3d 979, 988 (9th Cir. 2001); Campanelli v. Bockrath, 100 F.3d 1476, 1479 (9th Cir. 1996). Courts may also "consider certain materials-documents attached to the complaint, documents incorporated by reference in the complaint, or matters of judicial notice-without converting the motion to dismiss into a motion for summary judgment." United States v. Ritchie, 342 F.3d 903, 908 (9th Cir. 2003). Documents whose contents are alleged in a complaint and whose authenticity is not questioned by any party may also be considered in ruling on a Rule 12(b)(6) motion to dismiss. See Branch v. Tunnell, 14 F.3d 449, 453-54 (9th Cir. 1994), overruled on other grounds by Galbraith v. County of Santa Clara, 307 F.3d 1119 (9th Cir. 2002). If a court converts a motion to dismiss into a motion for summary judgment, the court must give the parties notice and a reasonable opportunity to supplement the record. Bank Melli Iran v. Pahlavi, 58 F.3d 1406, 1408 (9th Cir. 1995).
On a Rule 12(b)(6) motion to dismiss, all allegations of material fact are taken as true and construed in the light most favorable to the nonmoving party. Fed'n of African Am. Contractors v. City of Oakland, 96 F.3d 1204, 1207 (9th Cir. 1996). However, conclusory allegations of law, unwarranted deductions of fact, and unreasonable inferences are insufficient to defeat a motion to dismiss. See Sprewell, 266 F.3d at 988; Nat'l Assoc. for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis v. Cal. Bd. of Psychology, 228 F.3d 1043, 1049 (9th Cir. 2000); In re Syntex Corp. Sec. Litig., 95 F.3d 922, 926 (9th Cir. 1996). Moreover, the court need not accept as true allegations that contradict matters properly subject to judicial notice or allegations contradicting the exhibits attached to the complaint. Sprewell, 266 F.3d at 988.
In summary, to survive a Rule 12(b)(6) motion to dismiss, "[f]actual allegations must be enough to raise a right to relief above the speculative level . . . on the assumption that all the allegations in the complaint are true (even if doubtful in fact)." Bell Atl. Corp. v. Twombly, 550 U.S. 544, 555 (2007) (internal citations and quotations omitted). "While a complaint attacked by a Rule 12(b)(6) motion to dismiss does not need detailed factual allegations . . . a plaintiff's obligation to provide the 'grounds' of his 'entitlement to relief' requires more than labels and conclusions, and a formulaic recitation of the elements of a cause of action will not do." Id. (internal citations and quotations omitted). Dismissal is appropriate under Rule 12(b)(6) if the facts alleged do not state a claim that is "plausible on its face." Id. at 570. "Determining whether a complaint states a plausible claim for relief will . . . be a context-specific task that requires the reviewing court to draw on its judicial experience and common sense." Ashcroft v. Iqbal, 129 S. Ct. 1937, 1950 (2009) (citation omitted). "[W]here the well-pleaded facts do not permit the court to infer more than the mere possibility of misconduct, the complaint has alleged-but it has not 'show[n]'-'that the pleader is entitled to relief.'" Id. (quoting Fed. R. Civ. P. 8(a)(2)).
"Dismissal without leave to amend is improper unless it is clear that the complaint could not be saved by any amendment." Harris v. Amgen, Inc., 573 F.3d 728, 737 (9th Cir. 2009) (internal quotation marks omitted). "But courts have discretion to deny leave to amend a complaint for futility, and futility includes the inevitability of a claim's defeat on summary judgment." Johnson v. Am. Airlines, Inc., 834 F.2d 721, 724 (9th Cir.1987) (citations and internal quotation marks omitted).
The instant motions both involve the same issue of statutory interpretation -- whether an employee may recover under H.R.S. §§ 388-6, 388-10, and 388-11, for the failure of a hotel to distribute service charges to employees when the hotel did not make disclosures required by H.R.S. § 481B-14. The Court will first address Defendants' request that this Court stay proceedings in this case while the Hawaii Supreme Court considers a certified question in a similar case. The Court will then address whether Count V states a plausible claim.
I. Defendants' Request to Stay Proceedings
On June 1, 2011, Defendants moved for this Court to certify the following question to the Hawaii Supreme Court: "May employees use Haw. Rev. Stat § 388-6 to seek damages for alleged violations of the obligations created by Haw. Rev. Stat § 481B-14?". Defs.' MTD Mem. at 13. Subsequently, on October 12, 2011, Judge Kobayashi certified three questions to the Hawaii Supreme Court in two similar cases, Villon v. Marriot Hotel Services, Inc., CV-08-00529 LEK-RLP, Doc. No. 130 (Oct. 12, 2011), and Rodriguez v. Starwood Hotels & ...