The opinion of the court was delivered by: Alan C. Kay Sr. United States District Judge
ORDER GRANTING IN PART AND DENYING IN PART DEFENDANT'S MOTION TO DISMISS, GRANTING DEFENDANT'S REQUEST TO STAY PROCEEDINGS AS MODIFIED, AND ADMINISTRATIVELY CLOSING THIS CASE
Plaintiffs Elizabeth Valdez Kyne, Chad Kruzic, and Adam Borowiec ("Plaintiffs"), brought suit on behalf of a similarly situated class against the Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company, L.L.C., d/b/a the Ritz-Carlton, Kapalua ("Defendant" or "Hotel"). Am. Compl. ¶¶ 3-6. Plaintiffs have all worked as food and beverage servers for at the Ritz-Carlton, Kapalua, in Maui, Hawaii. Id. ¶ 3.
Plaintiffs' Amended Complaint alleges that the Ritz- Carlton provides food and beverage services throughout the Hotel, including in its banquet department, its restaurants, and through room service. Id. ¶ 5. Plaintiffs allege that Defendant has added a preset service charge to customers' bills for food and beverage served at the Hotel, but that Defendant has not remitted the total proceeds of the service charge as tip income to the employees who serve the food and beverages. Id. ¶¶ 6--9. Instead, Plaintiffs allege that Defendant has had a policy and practice of retaining for themselves a portion of these service charges (or using it to pay managers or other non-tipped employees who do not serve food and beverages), without disclosing to the Hotel's customers that the services charges are not remitted in full to the employees who serve the food and beverages.*fn2 Id. ¶¶ 8-9. Plaintiffs assert that therefore customers are misled into believing the entire service charge is distributed to the employees that serve them, and as a result, customers who would otherwise leave an additional gratuity do not do so. Id. ¶ 10.
Plaintiffs' Amended Complaint asserts five counts. In Count I, Plaintiffs allege that Defendant's conduct violates Hawaii Revised Statutes ("H.R.S.") § 481B-14, and that pursuant to § 481B-4, such violation constitutes an unfair method of competition or unfair and deceptive act or practice within the meaning of H.R.S. § 480-2. In Count II, Plaintiffs allege that Defendant's conduct constitutes unlawful intentional interference with contractual and/or advantageous relations. In Count III, Plaintiffs allege that Defendant's conduct constitutes a breach of two implied contracts. In Count IV, Plaintiffs allege that Defendant has been unjustly enriched at Plaintiffs' expense under state common law. In Count V, Plaintiffs allege that as a result of Defendant's conduct, they have been deprived of income that constitutes wages, which is actionable under H.R.S. §§ 388--6, 388--10, and 388--11.
On November 24, 2008, Plaintiffs filed a Class Action Complaint. Doc. No. 1. There were a number of similar cases filed in this Court, and on February 11, 2009, Plaintiffs moved to consolidate or alternatively for assignment of all the related cases to one judge pursuant to Local Rule 40.2.*fn3 Doc. No. 25.
On April 8, 2009, this Court adopted the Magistrate Judge's Findings and Recommendation that the similar cases not be consolidated. 2009 WL 975753 (Doc. No. 31).*fn4
On July 9, 2009, the Court stayed this case in light of Judge Gillmor's certification to the Hawaii Supreme Court of a question of law that was also important to the instant case.*fn5
See Doc. No. 42. The Hawaii Supreme Court answered the certified question on March 29, 2010. See Davis v. Four Seasons Hotel Ltd., 228 P.3d 303 (Haw. 2010) (hereafter "Davis II"). Accordingly, on April 19, 2010, Plaintiffs filed a motion to lift the stay and a motion to file an amended complaint. Doc. Nos. 44 & 45. The Magistrate Judge granted both motions on June 22, 2010. Doc. No. 54. Plaintiffs filed their Amended Complaint on June 28, 2010. Doc. No. 56.
Meanwhile, on May 11, 2011, Plaintiffs filed a Motion to Certify Class. Doc. No. 76. On July 18, 2011, the Court adopted the Magistrate Judge's Findings and Recommendation that the Court grant Plaintiffs' motion and certify the class as "all non-managerial food and beverage service employees who, since November 24, 2002, have worked at banquets, functions, small parties, room service, and other events at the Ritz-Carlton, Kapalua, where a service charge was imposed and where a part of that service charge was kept by the Defendant without adequate disclosure to customers." Doc. No. 91; 2011 WL 2940444 (Doc. No. 93).
On May 11, 2011, Defendant filed a Motion to Dismiss Plaintiffs' Amended Class Action Complaint ("Defendant's Motion to Dismiss"). Doc. No. 81. The Motion was accompanied by a supporting memorandum ("Def.'s MTD Mem."). Id. Plaintiffs filed an opposition on October 26, 2011 ("Pls.' Opp'n"). Doc. No. 100. On November 2, 2011, Defendant filed a reply ("Def.'s Reply"). Doc. No. 104.
Plaintiffs filed a Motion for Partial Summary Judgment on May 11, 2011 ("Plaintiffs' Motion for Summary Judgment"). Doc. No. 78. The Motion was accompanied by a supporting memorandum ("Pls.' MSJ Mem.") and a concise statement of facts ("Pls.' CSF"). Doc. Nos. 79 & 80. On October 26, 2011, Defendant filed an opposition ("Def.'s Opp'n") and a response to Plaintiffs' CSF ("Def.'s Response to Pls.' CSF"). Doc. Nos. 101 & 102. Plaintiffs filed a reply on November 2, 2011 ("Pls.' Reply"). Doc. No. 103.
On November 9, 2011, Defendant filed a supplement to its Motion to Dismiss, attaching a copy of the Hawaii Supreme Court's order on the question certified to it by Judge Kobayashi in Villon v. Marriot Hotel Services, Inc., CV-08-00529 LEK-RLP, Doc. No. 130 (Oct. 12, 2011), and Rodriguez v. Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc., CV-09-00016 LEK-RLP, Doc. No. 139 (Oct. 12, 2011). Doc. No. 105 Ex. A.
On November 16, 2011, the Court held a hearing on Defendant's request to stay proceedings, Plaintiffs' Motion for Partial Summary Judgment, and Defendant's Motion to Dismiss.*fn6
The Court will address Plaintiffs' motion in a separate order.
Federal Rule of Civil Procedure 12(b)(6) ("Rule 12(b)(6)") permits dismissal of a complaint that fails "to state a claim upon which relief can be granted." Under Rule 12(b)(6), review is generally limited to the contents of the complaint. Sprewell v. Golden State Warriors, 266 F.3d 979, 988 (9th Cir. 2001); Campanelli v. Bockrath, 100 F.3d 1476, 1479 (9th Cir. 1996). Courts may also "consider certain materials-documents attached to the complaint, documents incorporated by reference in the complaint, or matters of judicial notice-without converting the motion to dismiss into a motion for summary judgment." United States v. Ritchie, 342 F.3d 903, 908 (9th Cir. 2003). Documents whose contents are alleged in a complaint and whose authenticity is not questioned by any party may also be considered in ruling on a Rule 12(b)(6) motion to dismiss. See Branch v. Tunnell, 14 F.3d 449, 453-54 (9th Cir. 1994), overruled on other grounds by Galbraith v. County of Santa Clara, 307 F.3d 1119 (9th Cir. 2002). If a court converts a motion to dismiss into a motion for summary judgment, the court must give the parties notice and a reasonable opportunity to supplement the record. Bank Melli Iran v. Pahlavi, 58 F.3d 1406, 1408 (9th Cir. 1995).
On a Rule 12(b)(6) motion to dismiss, all allegations of material fact are taken as true and construed in the light most favorable to the nonmoving party. Fed'n of African Am. Contractors v. City of Oakland, 96 F.3d 1204, 1207 (9th Cir. 1996). However, conclusory allegations of law, unwarranted deductions of fact, and unreasonable inferences are insufficient to defeat a motion to dismiss. See Sprewell, 266 F.3d at 988; Nat'l Assoc. for the Advancement of Psychoanalysis v. Cal. Bd. of Psychology, 228 F.3d 1043, 1049 (9th Cir. 2000); In re Syntex Corp. Sec. Litig., 95 F.3d 922, 926 (9th Cir. 1996). Moreover, the court need not accept as true allegations that contradict matters properly subject to judicial notice or allegations contradicting the exhibits attached to the complaint. Sprewell, 266 F.3d at 988.
In summary, to survive a Rule 12(b)(6) motion to dismiss, "[f]actual allegations must be enough to raise a right to relief above the speculative level . . . on the assumption that all the allegations in the complaint are true (even if doubtful in fact)." Bell Atl. Corp. v. Twombly, 550 U.S. 544, 555 (2007) (internal citations and quotations omitted). "While a complaint attacked by a Rule 12(b)(6) motion to dismiss does not need detailed factual allegations . . . a plaintiff's obligation to provide the 'grounds' of his 'entitlement to relief' requires more than labels and conclusions, and a formulaic recitation of the elements of a cause of action will not do." Id. (internal citations and quotations omitted). Dismissal is appropriate under Rule 12(b)(6) if the facts alleged do not state a claim that is "plausible on its face." Id. at 570. "Determining whether a complaint states a plausible claim for relief will . . . be a context-specific task that requires the reviewing court to draw on its judicial experience and common sense." Ashcroft v. Iqbal, 129 S. Ct. 1937, 1950 (2009) (citation omitted). "[W]here the well-pleaded facts do not permit the court to infer more than the mere possibility of misconduct, the complaint has alleged-but it has not 'show[n]'-'that the pleader is entitled to relief.'" Id. (quoting Fed. R. Civ. P. 8(a)(2)).
"Dismissal without leave to amend is improper unless it is clear that the complaint could not be saved by any amendment." Harris v. Amgen, Inc., 573 F.3d 728, 737 (9th Cir. 2009) (internal quotation marks omitted). "But courts have discretion to deny leave to amend a complaint for futility, and futility includes the inevitability of a claim's defeat on summary judgment." Johnson v. Am. Airlines, Inc., 834 F.2d 721, 724 (9th Cir.1987) (citations and internal quotation marks omitted).
The Court will first address Defendant's request that this Court stay proceedings in this case while the Hawaii Supreme Court considers a certified question in a similar case. The Court will then address Defendant's Motion to Dismiss Plaintiffs' Amended Complaint.
I. Defendant's Request to Stay Proceedings
On May 11, 2010, in alternative to its Motion to Dismiss, Defendant asked this Court to certify the following question to the Hawaii Supreme Court: "May employees use H.R.S. §[ ]388-6 to seek damages for alleged violations of the obligations created by H.R.S. §481B-14 when the employees have not stated a claim under H.R.S. §481B-14?" Def.'s MTD Mem. at 24.
Subsequently, on October 12, 2011, Judge Kobayashi certified three questions to the Hawaii Supreme Court in two similar cases, Villon v. Marriot Hotel Services, Inc., CV-08-00529 LEK-RLP, Doc. No. 130 (Oct. 12, 2011), and Rodriguez v. Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc., CV-09-00016 LEK-RLP, Doc. No. 139 (Oct. 12, 2011). As relevant here, Judge Kobayashi certified the following question:
May food or beverage service employees of a hotel or restaurant bring a claim against their employer based on alleged violation of Haw. Rev. Stat. § 481B-14 by invoking Haw. Rev. Stat. §§ 388-6, 388-10, and 388-11 and without invoking Haw. Rev. Stat. §§ 480-2 or 480-13?*fn7
Villon, CV-08-00529 LEK-RLP, Doc. No. 130; Rodriguez, CV-09-00016 LEK-RLP, Doc. o. 139.
On November 8, 2011, the Hawaii Supreme Court issued an "Order on Certified Question," ordering the parties to submit briefing with respect to this question, but stated that it was ordering such action "without conclusively determining whether this court will answer" the certified question. See Def.'s Supplemental Filing, Doc. No. 105 Ex. A.
Defendant acknowledges that Judge Kobayashi's certification renders Defendant's request for this Court to certify the question moot. Def.'s Opp'n at 21. Defendant requests, however, that the Court administratively close this case pending a decision by the Hawaii Supreme Court. Id. Defendant asserts that proceeding with the case at this time would be an inefficient use of judicial resources. Id. at 22. Defendant further asserts that because Plaintiffs' counsel are also the counsel for the plaintiffs in Villon, they will have a full opportunity to brief the issue before the Hawaii Supreme Court, and that Plaintiffs will not be prejudiced because "they will have the benefit of the Hawaii Supreme Court's opinion on this critical issue." Id.
Plaintiffs oppose Defendant's request, asserting that a stay "would impede the orderly course of justice by thwarting the expedient resolution of this case." Pls.' Reply at 15. Specifically, Plaintiffs point out that this case is three years old and has already been stayed once pending certification of another question to the Hawaii Supreme Court. Id.
A district court has discretion to certify a question to a state supreme court. Riordan v. State Farm Mut. Auto Ins. Co., 589 F.3d 999, 1009 (9th Cir. 2009). The Ninth Circuit has explained that it "request[s] certification not because a difficult legal issue is presented but because of deference to the state court on significant state law matters," and that it has "an obligation to consider whether novel state law questions should be certified." Kremen v. Cohen, 325 F.3d 1035, 1037-38 (9th Cir. 2003). The Supreme Court has noted that certification does, "in the long run save time, energy, and resources and helps build a cooperative judicial federalism." Lehman Bros. v. Schein, 416 U.S. 386, 390-91 (1974).
In Bellotti v. Baird, 428 U.S. 132 (1976), the Supreme Court held that the district court should have certified questions concerning the meaning of a state statute where potential interpretations of the statute would have avoided or substantially modified the constitutional challenge at issue.
Id. at 146-51 ("In deciding this case, we need go no further than the claim that the District Court should have abstained pending construction of the statute by Massachusetts courts."). The Supreme Court has also admonished both the Ninth Circuit and the district court for failure to certify a novel state law question.
See Arizonans for Official English v. Arizona, 520 U.S. 43, 76-77 (1997) ("Both lower federal courts in this case refused to invite the aid of the Arizona Supreme Court because they found the language of Article XXVIII [of the Arizona Constitution] 'plain.' . . . A more cautious approach was in order."). With this admonishment in mind, the Ninth Circuit has certified a state law question to the Washington Supreme Court when the parties unanimously opposed certification. See Parents Involved in Cmty. Schs. v. Seattle Sch. Dist. No. 1, 294 F.3d 1085, 1086 (9th Cir. 2002). The Ninth Circuit has also recognized that a certified question need not raise a constitutional issue. See Kremen, 325 at 1038 n.1, 1042. (certifying a question related to the tort of conversion). Nonetheless, the Ninth Circuit has held that "[e]ven where state law is unclear, resort to the certification process is not obligatory." Riordan, 589 F.3d at 1009.
It is also within the discretion of a district court to stay proceedings in its own court. Lockyer v. Mirant Corp., 398 F.3d 1098, 1109 (9th Cir. 2005). This District Court has recognized that:
A party seeking a stay . . . 'must make out a clear case of hardship or inequity in being required to go forward, if there is even a fair possibility that the stay for which he prays will work damage to someone else. Only in rare circumstances will a litigant in one case be compelled to stand aside while a litigant in another settles the rule of law that will define the rights of both.' Davis I, Civ. No. 08-00525 HG-BMK, 2011 WL 5025485, at *2 (D. Haw. Oct. 20, 2011) (quoting Lockyer, 398 F.3d at 1109).
In Davis I, Civ. No. 08-00525 HG-BMK, F. --- Supp. 2d ----, 2011 WL 3841075 (D. Haw. Aug. 26, 2011), Judge Gillmor similarly considered whether to stay the case in light of the same question certified to the Hawaii Supreme Court in Villon and Rodriguez. Judge Gillmor denied the defendant's request to stay the case, determining that the case was over three years old and had already been stayed once for ten months pending the Hawaii Supreme Court's ruling on a certified question; that although the plaintiffs had previously requested certification of that question, the defendant had opposed certification and had an opportunity to submit briefing on the questions to be submitted; and that it was unclear whether the certification of the questions would have any impact on the ultimate resolution of the case. Davis I, 2011 WL 5025485, at *2. Judge Gillmor further explained that the Hawaii Supreme Court may decline the certification and that the ultimate impact of the resolution of the instant question might have was unclear. Id.
Similarly, this case is nearly three years old and has already been stayed once pending resolution of a certified question by the Hawaii Supreme Court. Since Judge Gillmor's order in Davis I, however, the Hawaii Supreme Court has ordered briefing on the question potentially dispositive of the instant motion. See Def.'s Supplement, Doc. No. 105 Ex. A. Although more likely now, it does remain unclear when or if the Hawaii Supreme Court will answer the certified question because the court expressly declined to "conclusively determine" whether it would do so. Id. Also in contrast to the circumstances present in Davis I, Defendant has not previously opposed certification of the § 388-6 issue. In summary, in Davis I, the plaintiffs, who are represented by the same counsel as Plaintiffs in this case, had requested certification to the ...