The opinion of the court was delivered by: Alan C. Kay Sr. United States District Judge
ORDER GRANTING IN PART AND DENYING IN PART PLAINTIFFS' MOTION FOR PARTIAL SUMMARY JUDGMENT
Plaintiffs Nan Wadsworth, Elizabeth Valdez Kyne, Bert Villon, and Stephen West ("Plaintiffs"), brought suit on behalf of a similarly situated class against a number of different entities that have owned and operated the Grand Wailea Resort Hotel & Spa ("Grand Wailea Resort" or "Hotel") in Maui during the applicable statute of limitations period. Second Am. Compl. ¶¶ 4-6. Defendants include MSR Resort Lodging Tenant, LLC, KSL Grand Wailea Resort, Inc., Hilton Hotels Corp. ("Hilton"), Waldorf=Astoria Management LLC ("Waldorf=Astoria"), CNL Grand Wailea Resort, LP, and CNL Lodging Tenant Corp.*fn2 Id. ¶¶ 6--8. Plaintiffs have all worked as food and beverage servers for Defendants. Id. ¶ 3.
Plaintiffs' Second Amended Complaint alleges that the Grand Wailea Resort provides food and beverage services throughout the Hotel, including in its banquet department, its restaurants, and through room service. Id. ¶ 5. Plaintiffs allege that Defendants have added a preset service charge to customers' bills for food and beverage served at the Hotel, but that Defendants have not remitted the total proceeds of the service charge as tip income to the employees who serve the food and beverages. Id. ¶¶ 9--10. Instead, Plaintiffs allege that the Defendants have had a policy and practice of retaining for themselves a portion of these service charges (or using it to pay managers or other non-tipped employees who do not serve food and beverages), without disclosing to the Hotel's customers that the services charges are not remitted in full to the employees who serve the food and beverages.*fn3 Id. ¶¶ 11--12.
Plaintiffs' Second Amended Complaint asserts five counts. As a result of the Court's ruling on a previous motion to dismiss, the following counts remain: Count II, in which Plaintiffs allege that Defendants' conduct constitutes unlawful intentional interference with contractual and/or advantageous relations; Count III, to the extent Plaintiffs allege that Defendants' conduct constitutes a breach of an implied contract between Defendants and Defendants' customers, of which Plaintiffs are third party beneficiaries; Count IV, in which Plaintiffs allege that Defendants have been unjustly enriched at Plaintiffs' expense under state common law; and Count V, in which Plaintiffs allege that as a result of Defendants' conduct, they have been deprived of income that constitutes wages, which is actionable under H.R.S. §§ 388--6, 388--10, and 388--11. Count V is at issue in the instant motion. Plaintiffs move for summary judgment on Count V as to Defendants' liability for unpaid wages, but not as to the amount of resulting damages.
On November 24, 2008, Plaintiffs filed a Class Action Complaint. Doc. No. 1. On January 29, 2009, Plaintiffs filed an Amended Class Action Complaint. Doc. No. 19. There were a number of similar cases filed in this Court, and on January 23, 2009, Plaintiffs moved to consolidate or alternatively for assignment of all the related cases to one judge pursuant to Local Rule 40.2.*fn4 Doc. No. 16. On April 8, 2009, this Court adopted the Magistrate Judge's Findings and Recommendation that the similar cases not be consolidated. 2009 WL 975769 (Doc. No. 56).*fn5
On July 9, 2009, the Court stayed this case in light of Judge Gillmor's certification to the Hawaii Supreme Court of a question of law that was also important to the instant case.*fn6
See Doc. No. 71. The Hawaii Supreme Court answered the certified question on March 29, 2010. See Davis v. Four Seasons Hotel Ltd., 228 P.3d 303 (Haw. 2010) (hereafter "Davis II"). Accordingly, on April 16, 2010, Plaintiffs filed a motion to lift the stay and a motion to file a second amended complaint. Doc. Nos. 73 & 74. The Magistrate Judge granted both motions on June 22, 2010. Doc. No. 89. Plaintiffs filed their Second Amended Complaint on June 28, 2010. Doc. No. 93.
On July 20, 2010, Defendants filed a Motion to Dismiss Second Amended Complaint. Doc. No. 95. On December 10, 2010, the Court granted the motion with respect to Count I, Plaintiffs' unfair methods of competition claim, without prejudice and Count III, in so far as it alleged a breach of an implied contract between Plaintiffs and Defendants. 2010 WL 5146521 (Doc. No. 118).
On March 25, 2011, Plaintiffs filed a Motion to Certify Class. Doc. No. 126. On April 1, 2011, Defendants filed a Suggestion of Bankruptcy for MSR Golf Course LLC, et al., which acted to stay proceedings against all Defendants except Hilton and Waldorf=Astoria.*fn7 Doc. No. 128. On July 18, 2011, the Court adopted the Magistrate Judge's Findings and Recommendation that the class be certified as "all non-managerial food and beverage employees who, from January 31, 2006 to the present, have worked at banquets, functions, other events, and small parties, where a service charge was imposed and where a part of that service charge was kept by the Defendants or management without adequate disclosure to customers" as to the non-debtor Defendants Hilton and Waldorf=Astoria (together "Defendants").*fn8
On June 1, 2011, Plaintiffs filed the instant Motion for Partial Summary Judgment ("Plaintiffs' Motion for Summary Judgment"). Doc. No. 143. The Motion was accompanied by a supporting memorandum ("Pls.' MSJ Mem.") and a concise statement of facts ("Pls.' CSF"). Doc. Nos. 144 & 145. On October 24, 2011, Defendants filed an opposition ("Defs.' Opp'n") and a response to Plaintiffs' CSF ("Defs.' Response to Pls.' CSF"). Doc. Nos. 155 & 156. In their opposition, Defendants requested the Court stay proceedings pending the Hawaii Supreme Court's resolution of a question of law certified to it by Judge Kobayashi in a similar case. Defs.' Opp'n at 9-10. Plaintiffs filed a reply on October 31, 2011 ("Pls.' Reply"). Doc. No. 157.
On June 1, 2011, Defendants filed a Motion to Dismiss Count V of the Second Amended Class Action Complaint or to Certify the Question to the Hawaii Supreme Court ("Defendants' Motion to Dismiss"). Doc. No. 146. The Motion was accompanied by a supporting memorandum ("Defs.' MTD Mem."). Doc. No. 146. Plaintiffs filed an opposition on October 24, 2011 ("Pls.' Opp'n"). Doc. No. 154. On October 31, 2011, Defendants filed a reply ("Defs.' Reply"). Doc. No. 158.
On November 14, 2011, the Court held a hearing on Defendants' request to stay proceedings, Plaintiffs' Motion for Partial Summary Judgment, and Defendants' Motion to Dismiss. The Court has addressed Defendants' request to stay proceedings and Motion to Dismiss in a separate order. In that order, the Court denied Defendants' Motion to Dismiss Count V and granted the Defendants' request to stay proceedings as modified. In light of this stay, the instant order will go into effect after the stay is dissolved.
Plaintiffs seek summary judgment on Count V, in which Plaintiffs allege that as a result of Defendants' conduct, they have been deprived of income that constitutes wages, which is actionable under H.R.S. §§ 388--6, 388--10, and 388--11.
The purpose of summary judgment is to identify and dispose of factually unsupported claims and defenses. See Celotex Corp. v. Catrett, 477 U.S. 317, 323--24 (1986). Summary judgment is therefore appropriate if "the movant shows that there is no genuine dispute as to any material fact and the movant is entitled to judgment as a matter of law." Fed. R. Civ. P. 56(a). "A party asserting that a fact cannot be or is genuinely disputed must support the assertion," and can do so in either of two ways: by "citing to particular parts of materials in the record, including depositions, documents, electronically stored information, affidavits or declarations, stipulations (including those made for purposes of the motion only), admissions, interrogatory answers, or other materials"; or by "showing that the materials cited do not establish the absence or presence of a genuine dispute, or that an adverse party cannot produce admissible evidence to support the fact." Fed. R. Civ. P. 56(c)(1).
"A fact is 'material' when, under the governing substantive law, it could affect the outcome of the case. A 'genuine issue' of material fact arises if 'the evidence is such that a reasonable jury could return a verdict for the nonmoving party.'" Thrifty Oil Co. v. Bank of Am. Nat'l Trust & Sav. Ass'n, 322 F.3d 1039, 1046 (9th Cir. 2003) (quoting Anderson v. Liberty Lobby, Inc., 477 U.S. 242, 248 (1986)).*fn9 Conversely, where the evidence could not lead a rational trier of fact to find for the nonmoving party, no genuine issue exists for trial. See ...