The opinion of the court was delivered by: Alan C. Kay Sr. United States District Judge
ORDER GRANTING IN PART AND DENYING IN PART PLAINTIFFS' MOTION FOR PARTIAL SUMMARY JUDGMENT
Plaintiffs Elizabeth Valdez Kyne, Chad Kruzic, and Adam Borowiec ("Plaintiffs"), brought suit on behalf of a similarly situated class against the Ritz-Carlton Hotel Company, L.L.C., d/b/a the Ritz-Carlton, Kapalua ("Defendant" or "Hotel"). Am. Compl. ¶¶ 3-6. Plaintiffs have all worked as food and beverage servers for at the Ritz-Carlton, Kapalua, in Maui, Hawaii. Id. ¶ 3.
Plaintiffs' Amended Complaint alleges that the Ritz- Carlton provides food and beverage services throughout the Hotel, including in its banquet department, its restaurants, and through room service. Id. ¶ 5. Plaintiffs allege that Defendant has added a preset service charge to customers' bills for food and beverage served at the Hotel, but that Defendant has not remitted the total proceeds of the service charge as tip income to the employees who serve the food and beverages. Id. ¶¶ 6--9. Instead, Plaintiffs allege that Defendant has had a policy and practice of retaining for themselves a portion of these service charges (or using it to pay managers or other non-tipped employees who do not serve food and beverages), without disclosing to the Hotel's customers that the services charges are not remitted in full to the employees who serve the food and beverages.*fn2 Id. ¶¶ 8-9. Plaintiffs assert that therefore customers are misled into believing the entire service charge is distributed to the employees that serve them, and as a result, customers who would otherwise leave an additional gratuity do not do so. Id. ¶ 10.
Plaintiffs' Amended Complaint asserts five counts. In Count I, Plaintiffs allege that Defendant's conduct violates Hawaii Revised Statutes ("H.R.S.") § 481B-14, and that pursuant to § 481B-4, such violation constitutes an unfair method of competition or unfair and deceptive act or practice within the meaning of H.R.S. § 480-2. In Count II, Plaintiffs allege that Defendant's conduct constitutes unlawful intentional interference with contractual and/or advantageous relations. In Count III, Plaintiffs allege that Defendant's conduct constitutes a breach of two implied contracts. In Count IV, Plaintiffs allege that Defendant has been unjustly enriched at Plaintiffs' expense under state common law. In Count V, Plaintiffs allege that as a result of Defendant's conduct, they have been deprived of income that constitutes wages, which is actionable under H.R.S. §§ 388--6, 388--10, and 388--11.
On November 24, 2008, Plaintiffs filed a Class Action Complaint. Doc. No. 1. There were a number of similar cases filed in this Court, and on February 11, 2009, Plaintiffs moved to consolidate or alternatively for assignment of all the related cases to one judge pursuant to Local Rule 40.2.*fn3 Doc. No. 25.
On April 8, 2009, this Court adopted the Magistrate Judge's Findings and Recommendation that the similar cases not be consolidated. 2009 WL 975753 (Doc. No. 31).*fn4
On July 9, 2009, the Court stayed this case in light of Judge Gillmor's certification to the Hawaii Supreme Court of a question of law that was also important to the instant case.*fn5 See Doc. No. 42. The Hawaii Supreme Court answered the certified question on March 29, 2010. See Davis v. Four Seasons Hotel Ltd., 228 P.3d 303 (Haw. 2010) (hereafter "Davis II"). Accordingly, on April 19, 2010, Plaintiffs filed a motion to lift the stay and a motion to file an amended complaint. Doc. Nos. 44 & 45. The Magistrate Judge granted both motions on June 22, 2010. Doc. No. 54. Plaintiffs filed their Amended Complaint on June 28, 2010. Doc. No. 56.
Meanwhile, on May 11, 2011, Plaintiffs filed a Motion to Certify Class. Doc. No. 76. On July 18, 2011, the Court adopted the Magistrate Judge's Findings and Recommendation that the Court grant Plaintiffs' motion and certify the class as "all non-managerial food and beverage service employees who, since November 24, 2002, have worked at banquets, functions, small parties, room service, and other events at the Ritz-Carlton, Kapalua, where a service charge was imposed and where a part of that service charge was kept by the Defendant without adequate disclosure to customers." Doc. No. 91; 2011 WL 2940444 (Doc. No. 93).
On May 11, 2011, Defendant filed a Motion to Dismiss Plaintiffs' Amended Class Action Complaint ("Defendant's Motion to Dismiss"). Doc. No. 81. The Motion was accompanied by a supporting memorandum ("Def.'s MTD Mem."). Id. Plaintiffs filed an opposition on October 26, 2011 ("Pls.' Opp'n"). Doc. No. 100. On November 2, 2011, Defendant filed a reply ("Def.'s Reply"). Doc. No. 104.
Plaintiffs filed a Motion for Partial Summary Judgment on May 11, 2011 ("Plaintiffs' Motion for Summary Judgment"). Doc. No. 78. The Motion was accompanied by a supporting memorandum ("Pls.' MSJ Mem.") and a concise statement of facts ("Pls.' CSF"). Doc. Nos. 79 & 80. On October 26, 2011, Defendant filed an opposition ("Def.'s Opp'n") and a response to Plaintiffs' CSF ("Def.'s Response to Pls.' CSF"). Doc. Nos. 101 & 102. Plaintiffs filed a reply on November 2, 2011 ("Pls.' Reply"). Doc. No. 103.
On November 9, 2011, Defendant filed a supplement to its Motion to Dismiss, attaching a copy of the Hawaii Supreme Court's order on the question certified to it by Judge Kobayashi in Villon v. Marriot Hotel Services, Inc., CV-08-00529 LEK-RLP, Doc. No. 130 (Oct. 12, 2011), and Rodriguez v. Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide, Inc., CV-09-00016 LEK-RLP, Doc. No. 139 (Oct. 12, 2011). Doc. No. 105 Ex. A.
On November 16, 2011, the Court held a hearing on Defendant's request to stay proceedings, Plaintiffs' Motion for Partial Summary Judgment, ...