The opinion of the court was delivered by: Susan Oki Mollway Chief United States District Judge
ORDER GRANTING IN PART, DENYING IN PART, AND CONTINUING IN PART MOTIONS FOR SUMMARY JUDGMENT AND MOTIONS TO DISMISS OR TRANSFER VENUE
The case in which a mountain is likeliest to be made out of a molehill is a case brought by a plaintiff who is a lawyer representing himself and whose primary practice area is not litigation. This is such a case.
Plaintiff Paul Peters is a Utah lawyer who now runs a bed and breakfast business on Maui. He is the sole plaintiff in this case, which concerns a Texas country club's dues. He alleges, among other things, theft and violations of the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act ("RICO"). Reviewing the claims asserted in this case, this court cannot help but think of another case brought by a pro se attorney: Walter v. Drayson, 496 F. Supp. 2d 1162 (D. Haw. 2007), aff'd 538 F.3d 1244 (9th Cir. 2008). The plaintiff-attorney in that earlier case, having made a protracted and expensive civil RICO lawsuit out of what was actually a relatively simple trust and estate dispute, recovered nothing and ultimately was taxed with $5,000 in his opponents' costs.
The case now before this court begins with the purchase of property in a Texas development. Peters purchased property in that project in 2002, and his wife, Angela, purchased a separate property in the same project in 2004. Peters complains that he was double-billed by the Bentwater Yacht and Country Club for membership dues relating to those properties. Peters takes the position that his family should pay for only one membership, while Bentwater Yacht and Country Club contends that the association documents encumbering both properties require at least a social membership to be maintained for each property. For years, Defendant Bentwater Yacht and Country Club attempted to collect the social dues Angela did not pay on her property. Peters proceeds here alone, without Angela, against Bentwater Yacht and Country Club, the Texas Law Firm of Roberts Markel retained by the club, and Brady Ortego, an attorney at the law firm.
Like the attorney in Walter v. Drayson, Peters demonstrates that he is smart, imaginative, and resourceful. But he is apparently not an experienced litigator, and his zeal and unfamiliarity with court rules have robbed his lawsuit of any sense of proportionality with the actual underlying dispute.
The Complaint's First and Fourth Claims for Relief involve alleged violations of the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act ("FDCPA"). Except with respect to a single letter dated May 12, 2011, from the law firm, summary judgment is granted in favor of all Defendants on the FDCPA claims asserted in the First and Fourth Claims for Relief. To the extent FDCPA claims are asserted against Bentwater Yacht and Country Club, the FDCPA is inapplicable because the club's attempts to collect its own debt do not render it a debt collector. Even if Bentwater Yacht and Country Club were a debt collector, its debt collection activities, like those of Ortego and most of the collection activities of the law firm, were aimed at only Angela, not Peters. Peters lacks statutory standing to maintain claims on behalf of his wife, who is not a party to this action. In granting summary judgment on most of Peters's FDCPA claims, the court is not ruling on whether such claims could be brought by Angela. The court is only ruling that the FDCPA does not allow a husband to assert claims belonging to his wife.
To the extent the motions seek other relief, including the transfer of venue to the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas, Houston Division, the court continues the hearing until 11:15 a.m. on August 27, 2012, and requests supplemental briefing and/or motions to aid the court in determining whether a transfer of venue or other relief is appropriate.
Paul H. Peters is a Utah attorney who now apparently runs a bed and breakfast on Maui. See ECF 31-6 (letter dated August 30, 2011, from Utah State Bar indicating that Peters is an active member of the Utah Bar and is in good standing); ECF 95-9 (review of the Blue Tile Beach House on Maui).
In February 2002, Peters purchased property in the Bentwater development in Texas from Mark G. Sweeney. This property is described as "Lot Five (5), Block One (1) of BENTWATER, SECTION EIGHTEEN (18), a subdivision situated in the James J. Foster Survey, A-203, Montgomery County, Texas." See ECF 31-8 (warranty deed). According to the Declarations of Covenants, Conditions and Restrictions for Bentwater Section 18, filed in April 1990 as Clerks File # 9014194, Section 6.02(f) at page 26: "Each owner of a Lot, other than Declarant, has agreed to obtain and maintain a 'Social Membership' as defined in the By-Laws of the Bentwater Country Club, Inc., a Texas corporation ('BCC') during the term of said Owner's ownership of a Lot." See ECF No. 31-11.
Peters, unmarried at the time he bought the first lot in 2002, married Angela in 2004. Declaration of Paul Peters ¶ 3 (Jan 26, 2012), ECF No. 83 (filed Jan. 31, 2012).
After they got married, Angela purchased a lot in the Bentwater development in her name, identified as "SURFACE ESTATE ONLY OF LOT EIGHT (8) IN BLOCK ONE (1) OF BENTWATER SECTION THIRTY-NINE (39), A SUBDIVISION IN MONTGOMERY COUNTY TEXAS." See ECF No. 31-9 (General Warranty Deed with Vendor's Lien). The mailing address for this property was 254 Creekwood West, Montgomery, TX 77356. Id. The title to this property, purchased from Andrew and Harriet Stromdahl, is held by "Angela M. Peters, a married woman, married to Paul H. Peters (whether one or more, hereinafter called 'Grantee')." Id. It appears that Angela took out a loan to purchase this property. See ECF No. 83-3 (Deed of Trust). The "Borrower" is identified in the loan documents as "ANGELA M. PETERS, joined herein Pro Forma by his/her spouse." Id. Peters signed the loan document on behalf of Angela under a power of attorney and signed it himself as a "Borrower." Id. Although title to the property is held in Angela's name, various real property tax documents list both Peters and Angela as owners. See ECF No. 83-4, 83-5, and 83-6.
There is no dispute that Peters and Angela were not living in Hawaii at the time Angela purchased her lot in 2004. See, e.g., ECF No. 83-7 (Dec. 3, 2004, letter sent to the Peters in Montgomery, Texas); ECF No. 31-21 (July 15, 2005, letter sent to the Peters in Key West, Florida); Sealed Ex. B (Feb. 27, 2012) (2002-04 tax returns for Paul Peters, indicating that his home address was in Key West, Florida; 2005-09 tax returns for Paul Peters, indicating that his home address was in Montgomery, Texas). Although Peters's tax returns listed his home address between 2005 and 2009 as Montgomery, Texas, it appears that Peters and/or Angela may have started living in Hawaii at some point in 2005. See ECF No. 83-11, PageID #1231 (Nov. 2005 bill addressed by Bentwater Yacht and Country Club to Angela in Paia, Hawaii); see also ECF No. 83-11, PageID #1176 (Jan. 2006 bill addressed by Bentwater Yacht and Country Club to Peters in Paia, Hawaii).
Peters asserts that Bentwater Yacht and Country Club recognized in December 2004 that he and his wife jointly owned the second property, as evidenced by a letter from Trina Almas, the club's membership director, addressed to Peters and Angela, stating, "congratulations on your purchase." See ECF No. 31-15. This document, however, only discussed membership and did not clearly indicate who was the record owner of the property. See id. Enclosed with the letter were applications for membership and for credit. Id.
The second lot was encumbered by Declarations of Covenants, Conditions and Restrictions for Bentwater Section 39, filed in April 1994 as Clerks File # 9420835, that were similar to the provisions governing the first lot. Section 6.02(g) at page 29 of that document states: "Each owner of a Lot, other than Declarant, has agreed to obtain and maintain a 'Social Membership' as defined in the By-Laws of the Bentwater Country Club, Inc., a Texas corporation ('BCC') during the term of said Owner's ownership of a Lot." See ECF 31-12.
On or about May 4, 2005, Trina Almas, Bentwater's membership director, sent Peters and Angela a letter stating, "Looking through your file I see that we still have not received your application for membership and application for credit. Enclosed is another set of applications for you." See ECF No. 34-10.
On August 31, 2005, various Declarations of Covenants, Conditions and Restrictions for Bentwater, including those applicable to the first and second lots in issue here, were amended to state: "Notwithstanding anything contained in the Declarations to the contrary, a Social Membership, as previously defined, shall be required to be maintained on each and every Lot, and the Owner of multiple Lots shall be obliged to maintain a Social Membership on each and every Lot owned." See ECF 31-13 (Second Amendment to Clarify the Declarations of Covenants, Conditions and Restrictions for Bentwater).
The Complaint in this case alleges that, when the second lot was purchased, someone from the Bentwater Yacht and Country Club told Peters that it "would not duplicate membership dues." See Complaint ¶ 25, ECF No. 1 (May 24, 2011). The Complaint alleges that, for a period, duplicate membership dues were not charged. That is, Peters and Angela were allegedly not charged dues on both lots. Id. However, the Complaint says that "recently," duplicate dues have been charged. Id. ¶ 26.
The earliest bill sent by Bentwater Yacht and Country Club to "Angela Peters" that is in the record is dated November 30, 2005. The November 2005 bill indicates that Angela owed Bentwater $970.28. The bill indicates that her previous balance was $882.62. See ECF No. 83-11, PageID # 1231 (Bates Stamp 00626). It is not clear whether earlier bills were sent to Angela, as the Bates Stamp numbers on the documents before this court jump from 00614 to 00626, and the exhibit does not provide all of those intervening pages. The $882.62 owed is consistent with all of the social fees and late fees allegedly owed by Angela from December 2004 through October 2005. See ECF No. 34-16. It appears that, beginning in May 2011, Angela began making some payments, bringing her account current through September 2007. See ECF No. 34-16; ECF No. 83-12 PageID #1297 (Bates Stamp No. 00692). There is no dispute that the bills sent by Bentwater Yacht and Country Club concerning the second property were all sent to "Angela Peters." See ECF Nos. 83-11 and 83-12.
For a while, membership dues on the first lot, purchased by Peters in 2002, were paid by way of automatic debit from Peters's Bank of America checking account in Key West, Florida, pursuant to Peters's authorization of February 10, 2005, to "Bentwater Yacht & Country Club." See ECF No. 95-8. It appears that Peters stopped paying dues on the first lot in April 2011, shortly before filing the Complaint in this matter. See ECF No. 83-11, PageID #s 1176 through 1230.
On March 2, 2010, "Bentwater Yacht & Country Club, LTD.," through its "Senior A/R Accountant," Toni Steck, sent Angela a letter. See ECF No. 31-30. This letter indicated that Angela owed more than $8,000. It told Angela, "Your membership privileges for this account have been suspended as well as any other Bentwater account. During the period of suspension, you and your family shall have no right or privileges to use the facilities." Id. (emphasis deleted). The letter indicated that Angela's name had been posted on the "Club's delinquent list." Id. This letter is nearly identical to one that had been sent in March 2005 to Angela by "Bentwater Yacht & Country Club, LTD." See ECF No. 34-8.
Bentwater Yacht and Country Club continued to deduct membership dues from the Bank of America checking account for dues relating to the first lot after it sent the March 2010 letter barring Angela and her family from the club's facilities. Peters's Complaint asserts that, in so doing, Bentwater stole membership dues of $329.38 per month. See Complaint ¶¶ 28, 29, 34, 56-58. The bills submitted by Peters indicate that he stopped the automatic deductions more than a year after his wife was told that her family would not be able to use the facilities. See ECF No. 83-11, PageID #1223 (May 2011 bill).
On or about March 27, 2010, Peters and Angela sent Toni Steck a letter responding to the March 2, 2010, letter. See ECF No. 31-31. The response asked Steck to explain the nature of the alleged debt, to provide an accounting of how the debt had been determined, to provide the documentation forming the basis of the alleged debt, to provide the basis for denying the entire family use of the Bentwater facilities, to provide copies of prior invoices, and to provide the name and address of the original creditor. See id.
On or about April 8, 2010, Defendant Brady E. Ortego, an attorney at the Defendant law firm in this action, Roberts Markel, responded to the letter from Peters and Angela of March 27, 2010. See ECF No. 31-32. Ortego sent that response to Peters's Hawaii address. See ECF No. 31-32. The response indicated that Ortego and the law firm represented "Bentwater Yacht & Country Club, LTD," the entity that was allegedly owed the dues. Id. Ortego's letter attached an itemized accounting of all of the fees Angela Peters owed and explained that the fees were based on the Declarations of Covenants, Conditions and Restrictions for the property, as amended, which required "social memberships" to be maintained for all properties, even when multiple properties were owned by the same person. See id. The letter stated: "We are attempting to collect a debt and all information obtained will be used for that purpose." Id. (emphasis deleted).
On or about June 25, 2010, Bentwater Property Owners Association, Inc., through its attorney, Ortego, filed a "Notice of Assessment" that placed a lien on Angela's property in Montgomery, Texas. See ECF No. 31-33. This lien indicated that the owner of the property on which it was being placed was "Angela M. Peters." Id. On or about June 28, 2010, Ortego sent Angela a copy of the Notice of Assessment lien on Roberts Markel stationery. See ECF No. 83-25. The letter was sent by certified and regular mail. Id.
On or about November 9, 2010, Peters and Angela sent Ortego an email, stating, "We are seeking your assistance to resolve a critical situation involving our family's finances and reputation." See ECF No. 83-26, PageID #1539. The email stated that, in the process of refinancing the mortgage on Angela's property, "we learned that you recorded a lien with the Montgomery County Clerk against our home." Id. The email thereby suggested that Peters and Angela had not seen the June 2010 letter notifying Angela of the lien. In their email, Peters and Angela complained about alleged double billing and noted that $329.38 was being taken out of their checking account without their consent, while they were being denied use of club facilities. Id. PageID #1540-41.
On or about November 22, 2010, Ortego replied via email to the email of November 9, 2010, stating: "When you purchased your homes in Bentwater, you agreed to pay certain charges related to your ownership of the property . . . . You are delinquent in your payment of the charges related to your social membership or the country club charge." See ECF 83-26, PageID #1537. Ortego noted, "The $329.38 that you are paying each month relates to only one membership for one lot. There is a remaining balance owed for the other lot you own which is the basis of the collection action." Id. Documents submitted to this court confirm that, as of November 2010, Peters was paying the monthly dues on his property. See ECF No. 83-11, PageID #1217. Ortego informed Peters and Angela in the email of November 22, 2010, that, when they purchased lots in Bentwater, they had agreed that social membership dues "'shall be a charge on the Lots and shall be a continuing lien upon the property . . . .'" ECF No. 83-11, PageID #1217 (quoting Article VI, Section 6.01 of the declaration relating to Angela's property). Ortego noted that, "While the social membership dues are assessed by the BYCC [Bentwater Yacht and Country Club, LTD], the POA [Bentwater Property Owners Association, Inc.] is assigned to collect the delinquent charges from non-paying owners." ECF No. 83-26 at PageID #1537.
On or about May 12, 2011, Marc Markel, on behalf of the law firm of Roberts Markel, sent Peters and Angela a Final Demand Letter. See ECF No. 83-27. This letter noted that the law firm had been retained by the Bentwater Property Owners Association, Inc., to collect delinquent assessments regarding 254 Creekwood West, Angela's property. Id. The letter stated that the law firm represented the association "as a creditor in this matter" and noted that it was "attempting to collect a debt" and that "all information obtained will be used for that purpose." Id. The letter said, "You have previously been sent correspondence with regard to delinquent assessments" and noted that the balance due on the account was $11,535.98.
1. Peters Lacks Statutory Standing to Assert Most of the FDCPA Claims.
In the Complaint's First and Fourth Claims for Relief, Peters asserts that Defendants have violated the Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, 15 ...