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Inc. v. Does 1 THROUGH 8

United States District Court, D. Hawaii

November 20, 2017

DOES 1 THROUGH 8, Defendants.



         Before the Court is Plaintiff UN4 Productions, Inc.'s (“Plaintiff”) Ex-Parte Motion for Leave to Serve Third Party Subpoena Prior to a Rule 26(f) Conference (“Motion”), filed November 17, 2017. The Court finds this matter suitable for disposition without a hearing pursuant to Rule 7.2(d) of the Local Rules of Practice for the U.S. District Court for the District of Hawaii. After carefully considering the Motion and the applicable law, the Court hereby GRANTS Plaintiff's Motion for the reasons set forth below.


         On November 17, 2017, Plaintiff commenced this copyright infringement action. Plaintiff alleges violations for direct and contributory copyright infringement, pursuant to 17 U.S.C. § 101, et seq. Plaintiff claims that it is the owner of the copyright registration for the motion picture entitled “Boyka: Undisputed IV” (“the Work”). According to Plaintiff, Defendants used BitTorrent, peer-to-peer file sharing protocols, to reproduce, redistribute, and perform the Work.

         After conducting an investigation, Plaintiff was able to identify Defendants' IP addresses and the related Internet Service Provider (“ISP”) as Verizon Wireless.


         Plaintiff seeks an order authorizing it to conduct limited early discovery for the purpose of identifying Doe Defendants. In particular, Plaintiff wishes to serve a third-party subpoena on Verizon Wireless.

         Federal Rule of Civil Procedure (“FRCP”) 26(d)(1) provides that “[a] party may not seek discovery from any source before the parties have conferred as required by Rule 26(f), except . . . when authorized . . . by court order.”[1] Fed.R.Civ.P. 26(d)(1). In rare situations, however, “courts have made exceptions, permitting limited discovery to ensue after filing of the complaint to permit the plaintiff to learn the identifying facts necessary to permit service on the defendant.” Columbia Ins. Co. v., 185 F.R.D. 573, 577 (N.D. Cal. 1999) (citing Gillespie v. Civiletti, 629 F.2d 637, 642 (9th Cir. 1980)). Courts permit early discovery when a plaintiff has established good cause. “Good cause” may be found where the “need for expedited discovery, in consideration of the administration of justice, outweighs the prejudice to the responding party.” Semitool, Inc. v. Tokyo Electron Am., Inc., 208 F.R.D. 273, 276 (N.D. Cal. 2002).

         The Ninth Circuit permits the use of discovery to ascertain the identities of unknown defendants, “unless it is clear that discovery would not uncover the identities, or that the complaint would be dismissed on other grounds.” Gillespie, 629 F.2d at 642. A three-factor test is employed in deciding whether to permit early discovery to identify defendants.

First, “the plaintiff should identify the missing party with sufficient specificity such that the Court can determine that defendant is a real person or entity who could be sued in federal court.” Second, the plaintiff “should identify all previous steps taken to locate the elusive defendant” to ensure that the plaintiff has made a good faith effort to identify and serve process on the defendant. Third, the “plaintiff should establish to the Court's satisfaction that plaintiff's suit against defendant could withstand a motion to dismiss.” Further “the plaintiff should file a request for discovery with the Court, along with a statement of reasons justifying the specific discovery requested as well as identification of a limited number of persons or entities on whom discovery process might be served and for which there is a reasonable likelihood that the discovery process will lead to identifying information about defendant that would make service of process possible.”

Dallas Buyers Club, LLC v. Doe-, No. 15cv2033-BAS (DHB), 2015 WL 5675540, at *2 (S.D. Cal. Sept. 25, 2015) (quoting Columbia, 185 F.R.D. at 578-80) (internal citations omitted). Courts have also considered whether the responding or opposing party would suffer prejudice, whether the expedited discovery would substantially contribute to the case moving forward, and whether the requested information is likely to lead to identifying information. Patrick Collins, Inc. v. Does 1-1219, No. C 10-14468 LB, 2010 WL 5422569, at *2 (N.D. Cal. Dec. 28, 2010); AF Holdings, LLC v. Doe, Civ. No. S-12-1078 GEB GGH, 2012 WL 1610185, at **2-3 (E.D. Cal. May 8, 2012).

         Courts have found that good cause exists to permit “expedited discovery to ascertain the identities of Doe defendants in copyright infringement actions.” AF Holdings, 2012 WL 1610185, at *2 (citing UMG Recordings, Inc. v. Doe., No. C-08-03999 RMW, 2008 WL 4104207 (N.D. Cal. Sept. 4, 2008); Arista Records LLC v. Does 1-43, Civil No. 07cv2357-LAB (POR), 2007 WL 4538697 (S.D. Cal. Dec. 20, 2007)).

         A. Identification of Missing Party with Sufficient Specificity

         The Court finds that Plaintiff has identified Defendants with enough specificity to enable the Court to determine that Defendants are real persons or entities who would be subject to the Court's jurisdiction. Exhibit 1 to the Complaint lists the IP addresses of each Defendant, the date of the alleged infringement, the name of the infringing file, and the counties in which the IP addresses are located within the State of Hawaii. 808 Holdings, LLC v. Collective of Dec. 29, 2011 Sharing Hash, Civil No. 12cv00186 MMA(RBB), 2012 WL 1648838, at *4 (S.D. Cal. May 4, 2012) (“[A] plaintiff identifies Doe defendants with sufficient specificity by providing the unique IP addresses assigned to an individual defendant on the day of the allegedly infringing conduct, and by using ...

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